Forming a Bridge
The Different Schools of Thought – Psychology, Mindfulness, Behavioral Economics and Philosophy
The fathers of
Based on a 1982 professional survey of US and Canadian psychologists, he was considered the second most influential psychotherapist in history (Carl Rogers ranked first in the survey; Sigmund Freud was ranked third). Psychology Today noted that, “No individual—not even Freud himself—has had a greater impact on modern psychotherapy.”
Beck is noted for his writings on psychotherapy, psychopathology, suicide, and psychometrics. He has published more than 600 professional journal articles and authored or co-authored 25 books. He has been named one of the “Americans in history who shaped the face of American psychiatry”, and one of the “five most influential psychotherapists of all time” by The American Psychologist in July 1989.
Adler was the first to emphasize the importance of the social element in the re-adjustment process of the individual and to carry psychiatry into the community.
Jung’s research and personal vision, however, made it impossible for him to follow his older colleague’s doctrine and a schism became inevitable.
Among the central concepts of analytical psychology is individuation—the lifelong psychological process of differentiation of the self out of each individual’s conscious and unconscious elements.
He was the founder of logotherapy, a school of psychotherapy that describes a search for life meaning as the central human motivational force. Logotherapy is part of existential and humanistic psychology theories.
Logotherapy was recognized as the third school of Viennese Psychotherapy; the first school was created by Sigmund Freud, and the second by Alfred Adler.
The father of
In 2011, he was named by Foreign Policy magazine in its list of top global thinkers. In the same year, his book Thinking, Fast and Slow, which summarizes much of his research, was published and became a best seller. In 2015, The Economist listed him as the seventh most influential economist in the world.
He is professor emeritus of psychology and public affairs at Princeton University’s Princeton School of Public and International Affairs.
The fathers of
Krishnamurti wrote many books, among them The First and Last Freedom, The Only Revolution, and Krishnamurti’s Notebook. Many of his talks and discussions have been published.
He wrote more than 25 books and articles on religion and philosophy. Alan Watts was one of the first to interpret Eastern wisdom for a Western audience.
“Perhaps the foremost interpreter of Eastern disciplines for the contemporary West, Alan Watts had the rare gift of ‘writing beautifully the un-writable’. Watts begins with scholarship and intellect and proceeds with art and eloquence to the frontiers of the spirit. A fascinating entry into the deepest ways of knowing.” — LA Times
In later years, visitors received instruction by sitting silently in his company asking questions. Since the 1930s his teachings have been popularized in the West.
Ramana Maharshi approved a number of paths and practices but recommended self-inquiry as the principal means to remove ignorance and abide in Self-awareness, together with surrender to the Self.
He is most well known for his ‘who am I?’ method of self-inquiry in order to abide in the true self.
The fathers of
Aside from being revered by Jewish historians, Maimonides also figures very prominently in the history of Islamic and Arab sciences and is mentioned extensively in studies. Influenced by Al-Farabi, Ibn Sina, and his contemporary Ibn Rushd, he became a prominent philosopher and polymath in both the Jewish and Islamic worlds. The famous Christian philosopher, Saint Thomas Aquinas (1225–74) was also proficient in Maimonides’ philosophical writings and quotes him. On his tomb is inscribed “From Moses to Moses there was none like Moses”.
Epictetus taught that philosophy is a way of life and not just a theoretical discipline. To Epictetus, all external events are beyond our control; we should accept whatever happens calmly and dispassionately. However, individuals are responsible for their own actions, which they can examine and control through rigorous self-discipline.
The Column and Equestrian Statue of Marcus Aurelius still stand in Rome, where they were erected in celebration of his military victories. Meditations, the writings of “the philosopher” – as contemporary biographers called Marcus, are a significant source of the modern understanding of ancient Stoic philosophy. They have been praised by fellow writers, philosophers, monarchs and politicians centuries after his death.